The NREM Outcomes Assessment Committee develops rubrics (based on those available from published assessment research and practice, and customized to meet NREM needs) for instructors of individual courses to use in direct summative assessment of students’ knowledge and skill levels. Each rubric describes skills and behaviors associated with four levels of skill attainment – undeveloped, emerging, competent, and exemplary. In addition, each rubric reflects the different facets of specific skills, so that assessment results can be used to guide very specific course and curriculum changes when and where needed (for example, in the written communication rubric, elements evaluated include audience-appropriateness, organization, clarity, and use of supporting material). Each rubric is applied to student-generated products in courses at early (100- and 200-level) and late (300- and 400-level) curricular stages to enable evaluation of student learning and skill development as they progress through their academic programs. Course instructors use the rubrics to determine the proportion of students participating in a course who have completed a specific exercise and have demonstrated skills/abilities at each level of attainment. In most cases, this is done apart from the evaluation of student work (i.e. graded assignments, tests, or other feedback) provided directly to each student.