References and Resources

Funding Source

Funding for this project was provided through a grant from Iowa State University's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences' Technology Advancement Committee.


References Cited

Lawlor, P.A., Helmers, M.J., Baker, J.L., Melvin, S.W. and Lemke, D.W., 2008. Nitrogen application rate effect on nitrate-nitrogen concentration and loss in subsurface drainage for a corn-soybean rotation. Transactions of the ASABE 51:83-94.

Linacre, E.T., 1977. A simple formula for estimating evaporation rates in various climates, using temperature data alone. Agricultural meteorology 18:409-424.

Metherell, A.K., Harding, L.A., Cole, C.V., and Parton, W.J. 1993. CENTURY Soil organic matter model environment. Technical Documentation Agroecosystem Version 4.0. USDA-ARS, Ft. Collins, CO.

Raich, J.W., E.B. Rastetter, J.M. Melillo, D.W. Kicklighter, P.A. Steudler, and B.J. Peterson. 1991. Potential net primary productivity in South America: Application of a global model.  Ecological Applications 1: 399-429.

Robertson, G.P. and Vitousek, P.M., 2009. Nitrogen in agriculture: balancing the cost of an essential resource. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 34:97-125.

Russell, A. E., C. A. Cambardella, D. A. Laird, D. B. Jaynes, and D. W. Meek. 2009. Nitrogen fertilizer effects on soil carbon balances in Midwestern U.S. agricultural systems. Ecological Applications 19:1102-1113.

Russell, A. E., D. A. Laird, T. B. Parkin, and A. P. Mallarino. 2005. Impact of nitrogen fertilization and cropping system on carbon sequestration in Midwestern Mollisols.  Soil Science Society of America Journal 69:413-422.


Web-based Resources

Ag Decision Maker:

Forecast and Assessment of Cropping Systems:

Iowa Environmental Mesonet:

Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy

Iowa Senate Natural Resources Committee:,_helmers,_castellano,_feb_2015_3.pdf

Iowa Streamflow and Water Quality: